Educational/Visual Perceptual Assessment
Does the student reread often? Do they have difficulty remembering what he/she reads? Does the student finish long exams on time? Is his/her reading and fluency grade levels?
We can test a student’s fluency (reading speed), comprehension and vocabulary using infra-red technology. The assessment is approximately 2 hours and includes a review of the assessment findings, and recommendations for parents, and a comprehensive assessment report is emailed.
Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary and Fluency Evaluation Using the Visagraph and Reading-Plus Tests of Comprehension and Vocabulary
The Visagraph is an infrared optic which senses eye positions during silent reading.
The Visagraph gives results in terms of grade level efficiency. This is not a measure of the person’s achievement or capability, but rather a measure of how hard they have to work compared to others in their grade level. Many children may be reading on or above grade level in comprehension and fluency, but using an efficiency level far below their grade level. This means the child is working too hard for the grades they receive.
The Visagraph is not limited to students who exhibit more obvious struggles with reading comprehension, speed, fatigue, or headaches. It is also for students who are not performing at their appropriate level. Those who work much harder to achieve the same results as their peers are often misdiagnosed and left untreated. The Visagraph evaluation can provide necessary information to correctly diagnose the underlying problem.
The Visagraph uses infrared sensors to track eye movements while the individual reads a passage, and then compares these eye movements with measurements taken form a large study of people. It compares the individual’s performance to the grade level norm established during the study.
The Visagraph, in tracking the eye movements, measures whether or not the eyes are working as a team to process information. The Visagraph can also measure and graph eye movements by grade level. This includes left to right movements, number of pauses while reading, length of pauses, moving right to left and down to change lines, and reversals of eye movements.
For empirical evidence of reliability, you may read these studies.
If the Visagraph results indicate visual perceptual issues, we refer the student to our Developmental Optometrist, Dr. April Spurling.
What is the difference between an Optometrist and an Ophthalmologist?
In the United States, there are two different types of licensed vision care professionals: the optometrist and the ophthalmologist. The optometrist is a doctor of optometry (O.D.) who diagnoses and treats visual health problems as dictated by state law. Some optometrists specialize in vision therapy. Dr. Spurling is one of these doctors. The ophthalmologist is a doctor of medicine (M.D.) who specializes in surgery and diseases of the eye. A small number of ophthalmologists work with or refer to vision therapists or orthoptists.
Presently, Dr. Spurling is one of two Developmental Optometrists in the United States trained in neuro optometry. A neuro-optometric rehabilitation evaluation provides information for analysis of the profound relationship of the visual process to balance, posture, movement, position sense, cognitive processing and memory.
For empirical evidence of reliability, you may read the following studies.
Repeatability of the Visagraph II in the Analysis of Children’s Eye Movements During Reading by the Southern California College of Optometry, Eric Borsting, OD, MS, FCOVD, FAAO, Michael Rouse, OD, MS, FAAO, Susan Shin, OD, FAAO, Emily Dold, OD, Alicia McClallen OD in the Journal of Optometry and Vision Development Volume 38/Number 2/2007.
Association between reading speed, cycloplegic refractive error, and oculomotor function in reading disabled children versus controls by Patrick Quaid & Trefford Simpson Received: 23 May 2012 /Revised: 15 July 2012 /Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published online: 29 August 2012 # Springer-Verlag 2012, Journal of Medical Ophthalmology.
Conclusion: This research indicates there are significant associations between reading speed, refractive error, and in particular vergence facility. It appears sensible that students being considered for reading specific IEP status should have a full eye examination (including cycloplegia), in addition to a comprehensive binocular vision evaluation.