Educational/Visual Perceptual Assessment

For empirical evidence of reliability, you may read the following studies:

  • Research Update on Visually-Based Reading Disability (2011) Barry Tannen, OD, FCOVD

  • Optometric Vision Therapy in Rehabilitation of Cognitive Deficit Secondary to Traumatic Brain Injury (2007) Tanya Skaler and Amanda Bowens

  • Maples WC (2003) Visual factors that significantly impact academic performance. Optometry 74(1):35–39

  • Grisham D, Powers M, Riles P (2007) Visual skills of poor readers in high school. Optometry 78(10):542–549

  • Marran LF, DeLand PN, Nguyen AL (2006) Accommodative insufficiency is the primary source of symptoms in children diagnosed with convergence insufficiency. Optom Vis Sci 83(5):281–289

  • Kulp MT, Schmidt PP (1996) Effect of oculomotor and other visual skills on reading performance. A literature review. Optom Vis Sci 73(4):283–292

  • Kulp MT, Schmidt PP (1996) Visual predictors of reading performance in kindergarten & first grade children. Optom Vis Sci 73(4):255–262

  • Borsting E, Rouse MW, Deland PN, Hovett S, Kimura D, Park M, Stephens B (2003) Association of symptoms and convergence and accommodative insufficiency in school-aged children. Optometry 74(1):25–34

  • Young B, Collier-Gary K, Schwing S (1994) Visual factors: a primary cause of failure in beginning reading. J Optom Vis Dev 32(1):58–71

  • Simons HD, Gassler PA (1988) Vision anomalies and reading skill: a meta analysis of the literature. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 65(11):893–904

  • Grisham JD, Simons HD (1986) Refractive error and the reading process: a literature analysis. J Am Optom Assoc 57(1):44–55

  • Gallaway M, Boas M (2007) The impact of vergence and accommodative therapy on reading eye movements and reading speed. J Optom Vis Dev 38(3):115–120

  • Fulk G, Goss D (2001) Relation between refractive status and teacher evaluation of school achievement. J Optom Vis Dev 32:80–82

  • Simons H, Grisham J (1987) Binocular anomalies and reading problems. J Am Optom Assoc 58:578–587

  • Crawford C (2002) Learning Disabilities in Canada: Economic Costs to Individuals, Families and Society. Prepared for the Learning Disabilities Association of Canada by the Roeher Institute

  • Hall R, Wick B, Bedell H (1998) Vergence facility: establishing clinical utility. Optom Vis Sci 75(10):731–742

  • Sassanov O, Sassonov Y, Koslowe CK, Shneor E (2010) The effect of test sequence on measurement of positive and negative fusional vergence. J Optom Vis Dev 41(1):24–27

  • CITT Investigator Group (2008) A randomized clinical trial of treatments for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children. Arch Ophthalmol 126(10):1336–1349

  • Palomo-Alvarez C, Puell MC (2010) Binocular function in school children with reading difficulties. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 248:885–892

  • Aziz S, Cleary M, Stewart HK, Weir CR (2006) Are orthoptic exercises an effective treatment for convergence and fusion deficiencies? Strabismus 14:183–189


  • Repeatability of the Visagraph II in the Analysis of Children’s Eye Movements During Reading by the Southern California College of Optometry, Eric Borsting, OD, MS, FCOVD, FAAO, Michael Rouse, OD, MS, FAAO, Susan Shin, OD, FAAO, Emily Dold, OD, Alicia McClallen OD in the Journal of Optometry and Vision Development Volume 38/Number 2/2007.

  • Association between reading speed, cycloplegic refractive error, and oculomotor function in reading disabled children versus controls by Patrick Quaid & Trefford Simpson Received: 23 May 2012 /Revised: 15 July 2012 /Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published online: 29 August 2012 # Springer-Verlag 2012, Journal of Medical Ophthalmology. 


Conclusion: This research indicates there are significant associations between reading speed, refractive error, and in particular vergence facility. It appears sensible that students being considered for reading specific IEP status should have a full eye examination (including cycloplegia), in addition to a comprehensive binocular vision evaluation.